THE ETHICAL DIRECTION IN WRITING HISTORY ACCORDING TO MISKAWEH
Certainly, the fruit of science is working with it, and accordingly, the philosopher and historian Miskaweh wanted his book “The Experiences of Nations” to be a historical source, a moral aid, and a good repository of examples on which he applied his concepts with his moral philosophy, combining Greek philosophy and Islamic law on the one hand, and history Ethics, on the other hand , Making a revolution in the field of historical writing for Muslims ! Miskawayh stipulated that whoever opposes historical writing should be characterized by virtuous moral traits, in order to give his historical material a scientific value, and to make judgments from an ethical point of view; In strict adherence to the truth, adopting complete impartiality and not compromising it and steadfastness on it, and being careful in explaining the direct and indirect causes when analyzing the historical event. Miskawayh applied these conditions, starting with himself, to confirm his credibility; He showed scientific objectivity, complete political impartiality, balance and rationality in his analyzes and moral judgments on the characters of events, selecting historical positions to write about and criticizing them. Miskawayh’s principle in his writing of history was that “there is no morality without a human being, and there is no human being without morals.” His view of ethics was that it “sprang from the soul and not from the body.” Therefore, he considered history the best effective tool for purifying souls and directing them in the right direction towards human happiness; By learning and training him on the virtues of sound character, and rejecting their opposite, by explaining the actions that result from the soul, whether in good or evil, and in light of this, the historian can explain the reasons for the emergence, growth and demise of states. The main objective of the research is to study the impact of Miskawayh's moral philosophy on judging historical events according to Miskawayh, especially as he analyzed the factors causing direct and indirect events. The question here is what distinguished Miskaweh from his predecessors who wrote history ? On what basis or base did Miskaweeh build his moral philosophy, and his point of view in judging historical events ?!
Keywords: The Ethical Direction, Miskaweh