Year:2024   Volume: 6   Issue: 2   Area:

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Fahd Saeed Bin RASHASH

DISSERTATION FORMS OF APPOINTMENT OF SUCCESSORS (RULE) FROM THE RASHIDUN ERA UP TO THE LATE ERA OF MUAWIYAH BIN ABI SUFYAN (11-56 AH / 632-676 AD): DESCRIPTIVE STUD

Following the death of the Prophet - May the blessings of Allah be upon him - the Companions and Muslims community turned into a new state, for which they were not prepared. The nation became without its leader – Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him; which resulted in several independent opinions (Ijtihaad). The Ansar considered themselves as the most deserving of the caliphate, and the Muhajireen considered themselves as the most deserving of the same, where each party had justifications for the same. During that period, the famous incident known in Islamic history as Saqifat Bani Sa`idah incident occurred, ending with unanimous agreement on the first Caliph, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq - May Allah be pleased with him. Just less than two years from his caliphate commencement, he recommended the person to succeed him, declaring his name explicitly, so he announced Omar bin Al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased with him - as his successor. Years later, the second Caliph Omar bin AlKhattab determined six candidates – i.e., for selecting one who would succeed him – from among the companions of the Prophet - May the blessings of Allah be upon him - who were also from among the ten companions promised Paradise. This new form ended with the announcement of Uthman bin Affan as the third caliph. Thus, each Caliph adopted a method different from that adopted by his predecessor, until the caliphate was vested in Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan - may Allah be pleased with him - who set an established means for the caliphate – the rule – which was binding on his successors, i.e., the appointment a crown prince. For 45 years, the Muslims community has been exposed to the forms of appointment of successors in multiple methods and different approaches. None of these means was binding on the successors of its owner. By observing these forms, we recognize the potential for adopting independent opinions (Ijtihaad) and change in the forms of appointment of successors – rule - in Islamic history, whereby this we know that Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan did not bring anything new regarding the succession of his son Yazid.

Keywords: The Rashidun Era, Muawiyah Bin Abi Sufyan, Ijtihaad.

http://dx.doi.org/10.47832/2757-5403.25.3


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