THE ROLE OF ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN ENHANCING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY /PIONEERING INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES (SWEDEN IS A CASE STUDY)
Since the energy crisis of 1973, many industrialized countries have made a strategic choice to shift energy from traditional energy (petroleum, natural gas, coal) to renewable energy of all kinds to ensure their energy security, away from fluctuations in oil prices and the dominance of producing countries. With the escalating drama of global warming and climate changes that have cast a negative shadow on the planet, the energy transition has become a challenge that requires countries of the world to take effective measures to reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, in line with the goals and recommendations of the Paris International Climate Change Conference in 2013. 2015. Some industrialized countries, including Sweden, have succeeded in achieving the energy transition from fossil fuels to clean renewable energy (wind, water, solar energy, biofuels, hydrogen, underground energy) in addition to light energy. Sweden has encouraged investment, research and development in the field of renewable energy, issued laws related to energy transformation and waste recycling, provided the financial support required for this transformation, and achieved sustainable development goals, thus becoming a successful model to be emulated worldwide
Keywords: Energy Crisis, Energy Security, Climate Change, Environmental Sustainability - Energy Poverty, Energy Justice, Environmental Refugees, Carbon Tax, Electric Car.