The theoretical achievement in the field of foreign language learning in the 1950s and early 1960s remained related to the practical side of language teaching. Moreover, The idea of the need for foreign language teaching methodologies for a theory of learning has remained constant since the occurrence of educational reform movements of the late nineteenth century.
To come to terms with the current developments in the field of foreign language learning, it is necessary to trace the recent history of the research carried out in this regard. Therefore, we will focus in this article on tracking the most important theoretical assets of foreign language teaching methods, and monitoring the evolution of language teaching and learning methods. This is done to distinguish between two approaches to language teaching; first, Direct teaching that negates the overlap of the learned and acquired language during foreign language instruction. And second Mediated teaching in which the second language is taught through the first language. Through this, we will monitor the cognitive cross-fertilization between acquiring the first language and learning the second one by tracing the relationship between them. We will list the most important assumptions underpinned by approaches to foreign language teaching. And we will monitor the foundations on which each approach is based separately to discover the commonalities between them and the contrast between them.
We will then contribute to building a new conception of foreign language learning by making use of the translation action inherent in the procedures adopted in most of these approaches. This is mainly evident in the difference between the necessity of adopting the first language or not during the teaching and learning of the foreign language.
Keywords: Applied Linguistics, First Language acquisition, Teaching Foreign Languages approaches, Direct teaching, Mediated teaching